Songs with violent lyrics can make listeners up to four times more aggressive, according to a new Australian research.
For the study, conducted by Macquarie University, over 200 students aged about 21 were divided into groups and played three violent songs by American artists, including rapper Violent J and hip-hop band D12.
Some heard only backing music, others heard just lyrics with some being exposed to the full songs alongwith their video clips.
The lyrics of these songs included references of raping women, slitting people's throats and pushing babies onto busy streets.
Thereafter, students were asked how much hot chilli sauce they would make a fellow participant eat even as they knew the other person hated spicy food and would have to eat it all.
Those who had not heard the lyrics or music said they would give an average of 3.8g - a small teaspoon - of chilli, while those who were exposed to music without lyrics would give an average of 8g.
However, for those who heard the lyrics, the average was 12.7g of chilli.
"That's a lot.... It's more than a tablespoon. Compared with the base line, they said they'd give nearly four times as much and what it shows you is that any exposure increases your aggressiveness, but the thing that seems to drive it the most is the lyrics," News.com.au quoted Wayne Warburton, deputy director of the university's Children and Families Research Centre, as saying.
He went on: "It's actually very hot sauce and you know if you put a lot (on a spoon), you can really hurt the person.
"If you heard the lyrics, you were significantly more aggressive and if you didn't hear the lyrics, you were less aggressive - and it didn't matter whether you saw the video or not.
"It doesn't matter what sort of person you are - it has the same effect.
"I think a (music) rating system that gave much clearer guidance as to the content is going to be helpful."Warburton added: "I also think it's really important we educate children and parents about the effects - and parents should listen to the music their kids listen to, just to get a sense of what it's like."