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The Rules of the Game
It was once considered to be brutal and rugged game, the purpose of which was to develop character and team play in the young Fauntleroy?s of the privileged classes. However modern rugby has developed into a fast paced game of skill and determination, where mind and body are exerted to the maximum. Each side has 15 players and all have specific duties to perform. Team formations vary but are broken into two, sometimes three lines. The seven forwards or tight five (in three formation) make up the pack. Traditionally the second group are called the backs, and consist of the remaining 6 players. The loose forwards and Number 9, the scrum half, form the third group, but in tho formation Number 9, alone separates the seven forwards and six backs. Invariably the side possessing superior skill, and who plays as a team, will prevail over a much fitter, but less experienced side. A summary of position and style of boot is given below.
Number Position Style of boots
1 Prop Boots worn have high and stiff heel counters to protect the anklebones (malleoli). The boot needs to be able to stabilise the foot on landing, This is particularly important for second row forwards, who are hoisted into the air at the line out (by the props0, and are prone to ankle injuries.
2 Hooker
3 Prop
4 Lock (2nd row)
5 Lock (2nd row)
6 Flanker (Wing Forward) The loose forwards wear boots with a lower heel counter because of their need to move freely
7 Flanker (Wing Forward)
8 8th Man
9 Scrum Half
10 Fly Half         Backs choose low cut style of boot, similar to soccer shoes. The boot facilitates speed and turning which helps the players carry out backline manoeuvres.
11 Weak Side Wing
12 Inside Centre
13 Outside Centre
14 Strong Side Wing
15 Fullback

A singular, all-powerful referee oversees each match. Talking back to the ref is simply not tolerated. To assist with handling and kicking the ball is slightly larger and more ovoid than an American football. A match is played out in two 40-minute halves, with a ten-minute half time to regroup. Only the referee is allowed on the pitch and he keeps time. In the past there were no stadium clocks in rugby. Now these do exist but the referee remains the sole judge of time. Complete matches usually begin and end in the span of just ninety minutes. Stoppages are permitted for injuries only. As match play moves past full time, the referee may allow play to continue until a turnover or a score occurs. Up to six substitutes are allowed, but once subbed for, a player may not return. One exception to this rule is if a player receives a blood injury, they have to leave the field of play for treatment, and are replaced by a player from the bench of substitutes. However, once patched up, they may return to the field of play and the replacement player has to return to the bench. Medical staff and water carriers are now allowed on the field. Plat continues until an infringement or a score occurs, not a 'turnover'. Aside from selecting substitutions, and offering a few moments of critique and direction at half-time, a rugby coach has absolutely no mechanism for input into the game once it has begun. He generally takes a seat in the stands. The selected team captain is solely responsible for conferring with the referee, and directing strategic plays. The match is continuous, with all players committed to running, passing, kicking and tackling for the full eighty minutes.

to choose your boots

How to choose your boots Always choose boots that fit properly, provide adequate support and are suitable for the surfaces to be played on. Never choose boots because they look cool or have a well-known brand name or favorite player endorsement. No boot has ever won a world cup and players stand out because of their ability rather than the boots they are wearing. Professionals choose footgear based on the position they play, the shape of their feet and their running style. Ideally rugby boots should fit snugly and feel comfortable. There should be no need to Ôbreak them inÕ, a common myth and often the cause of minor traumas such as blisters and corns. Forwards rely on lower body strength to provide the power in scrums, rucks and mauls; they need additional support around the ankle for extra protection to help prevent foot injuries. The kickers prefer a right fitting boot because it gives them a better feel for the ball, while props will favour a high ankle cut for extra support in scrums. It is a good idea to wear the same style socks you will be wearing on the pitch when you are trying on a boot for size. Choose soft uppers to accommodate your foot shape, this will prevent potential injuries and also maintain the suppleness by following the manufacturers instructions.


basketball scoreboard 
The objective of the game is to gain more points than the opposing team within the allotted time of play. A tie is called if the scores are equal at the end of play. The point score is as follows.
Try (5 points) A rugby try is similar to an American football touchdown, but with two key differences. When the ball carrier crosses the goal or tryline, play continues. The player must be seen to put downward pressure on the ball, in full view of the referee, (often in the midst of warding off tacklers,) in order for a try to be awarded. If the referee has difficulty in making the decision, he may ask the video referee to make the decision. He does this by making an outline of a rectangle with his hands to demonstrate his request.
Conversion (2 points) The team?s goal kicker must then kick the conversion from the mark of the try along a line perpendicular to the tryline from the 22metre line or further back if desired. From there he can place or drop kick it between the posts. (Rugby goal posts are located on the tryline.)
Penalty (3 points) When a penalty is awarded, the captain may elect to "take the points" and give his kicker a shot at goal. The ball must then be kicked through the exact mark given by the referee, again as a placed or dropped kick. This could be a hard price to pay for being caught offside, playing the ball while on the ground, or being guilty of dangerous play (high tackling, etc.).
Drop goal (3 points) Any player, may at any time, from anywhere on the pitch, attempt a drop kick. This same rule still exists in the NFL, with the great Jim Thorpe the last to exploit it. Although difficult and risky (since a miss generally results in a turnover), this form of scoring has broken many a heart. Often used as a last resort in response to a solid defensive stand, an outstanding kicker can break an opponent?s back with a swift and accurate blow. Many games have been won in this dramatic fashion, often at the final whistle.
pen and Set Play
During the game play must not take place infront of the ball and subsequently players are penalised for passing the ball forward in the direction of the opposite goal. There are stringent offside rules to prevent this. If the ball is accidentally fumbled forward, a minor infraction called a "knock on" has occurred. At the referee?s discretion, however, play does not stop should the other team gain an advantage from the miscue.
The ball can be advanced by: running it forward, kicking it forward, or passing it laterally until an open running space can be found and exploited. Field position can be dramatically enhanced with tactically accurate kicking. Balls are usually kicked to a part of the field left undefended, leading to a frantic foot race for possession.
A mystery to may strangers to the game is the scrummage (or scrum). The referee awards scrums after minor infractions arise (such as a forward pass or knock on). At the given mark each forward pack of eight players interlock, binding together, about an arms length apart. As the two front rows engage, a tunnel is created. All 16 forwards push in unison. On a hand signal from his hooker, the scrum half-back for the side awarded the scrum rolls the ball into the tunnel.

The ball is then "hooked" back with a well-timed foot strike (as hands cannot touch the ball in a scrum formation), or by sheer force one pack may push the other over and past the ball to gain possession. The ball is picked up when it emerges at the last scrummager?s foot.
A lineout occurs when the ball travels over the sidelines, or "into touch".

Play is resumed from the mark where the ball went into touch, by the side not handling it last. That side calls out a coded play and attempts to direct the ball to their assigned jumper. The ball is thrown down the middle of two parallel rows of opposing forwards, standing a yard apart. The advantage to the throwing side comes in knowing which jumper to favour often hoists him to breathtaking heights. The ball may be caught or tapped back, with creative attacks sometimes coming from a quick, unexpected tap.

Scrums and lineouts are all about possession of the ball. The forward pack with dominant skills can overcome one of greater size. A dominant forward pack can win most set pieces (scrum and lineout), and in so doing, neutralise an extraordinary runner or kicker in the opponents back line, by keeping the ball out of his hands. As the ball readies to emerge from the base of a set piece, a platform for transition into an attacking play exists. That play may come from the forwards, or the scrum half may elect to spin the ball out to his backs.

 A scrum half is the play maker, quick, and always elusive, crafty and tough. His underhand pass out to the back line may be a 15-meter bullet thrown while diving in the direction of his pass, fully stretched out and perhaps in the grasp of a desperate defender. The swift and strong running back line then attacks the defense in an attempt to find open space, as in a 3-on-2 or 2-on-1 break in basketball. A well-executed back line movement can be graceful, powerful and astonishing all at once.
Rugby Boots
Rugby and soccer boots both evolved from engineer's boots . Made by the local boot makers the quality was superior to many workmen's boots of the 19th century. Traditionally a distinguishing feature was the high cut design to give extra support to the ankle. Modern players are bigger and heavier and more athletic which places extreme demands on footwear. A game with emphasis on speed prefers a lower boot similar to the soccer shoe.

This is especially true in backs where less restriction at the ankle gives greater mobility. The front row and locks wear particularly sturdy boots with high tops. Traction and leverage in the scrum are essential therefore the forwards boots need to be robust, supportive with excellent traction. These players also tend to get their toes stood on and the need to protect the top of the foot is an essential design characteristic. Unlike soccer, rugby necessitates players run carrying the ball and tackle. Stops, sprints, abrupt direction changes, landing, and impact punctuate these activities.
The rugby player kicks from the hand, or a kicking tee, hence the need for a low tapered toe-box is less obvious. The modern rugby boot had a deeper toe box to accommodate the toes as well as provide protects to the top of the foot. Heels are protected with reinforced cups to stabilise the rearfoot during quick-change maneuvers. It is critical the boot flexes exactly at the point where the foot bends across the metatarsal phalangeal joints.

 Hence rugby boots tend to be worn with the toes at the very end of the shoe. This is thought critical to facilitate where the foot bends and the boot provides leverage otherwise bending the foot against an unremitting boot results in fatigue and skin damage. All this needs to come in a lightweight boot, which accommodates different width fittings. The physical dimensions of the players are bigger than average soccer players and unlike the round ball aficionados, rugby players prefer good fitting boots to the tighter style used by Becks and co.

The shape of rugby boots accommodates a wider forefoot and appears rounder than the average soccer shoe. The lacing medium enables the players to adjust to specific anatomical volume requirements as well as maintain a comfortable fit. Because rugby boots need to give support careful consideration is given to the materials the footwear is made from. Rugby boots are available with leather and synthetic uppers. Best quality boots have, like soccer boots, been made from kangaroo skin but the demand for non-animal synthetic uppers is growing.

Leather will stretch and moulds itself to the shape of the feet but unless specially treated can stretch out of shape in wet conditions. Synthetic boots are often lighter and less expensive. The vast majority of rugby boots will be made from a combination of natural and synthetic materials. Popular designer logos have had varying successes with rugby players. Some players prefer not to sport them and others may find their strategic setting ads strength to the footwear.

Rugby Injuries
Many authorities estimate approximately one fifth of rugby injuries involve boots. Most of these arise during the close season. Players are often out of condition and find the intensity of pre-season training too much. Hard pitch surfaces account for 70 per cent of the injuries where players are wearing ill-fitting boots not suited to dry conditions. All players are encouraged to keep their fitness up during the close season. Keen amateurs and professionals usually have individual fitness programs that last throughout the year. A problem, which sometimes arises, is inflammation of the plantar fascia.

As a hard, high speed, high impact sport injuries are not uncommon. Some on-the-field injuries are avoidable, or the severity decreased when players have optimal strength and conditioning to offset the effects of fatigue which pre-empt mistakes, increase player instability and affect concentration. Many overuse injuries are caused during training or exacerbated in a game, moist are avoidable with rest and recovery alongside hard, moderate and easy training sessions.

Other injuries are due to mistimed or dangerous tackles and no amount of training can prevent these. Falls or hits taken in a ruck or maul happen in every game and overuse injuries or imbalances that have-not been adequately addressed will also take their toll despite best preparations. Foot injuries are rare compared to ankle and knee incidents. Boot designs attempt to reduce excess torque and twist.

A frequent complaint is lateral ligament sprains common to the position of second row forward and usually due to landing badly. Unless the injury is completely rested and adequately rehabilitated then chronic ankle strain will weaken the player. Inversion ankle sprains usually referred to, as ankle sprains are another challenge many rugby players face.

The foot gets turned inwards to the ankle and this injury is found in both forwards and backs. It can result from slipping in the mud, an unbalanced step when running, side-stepping or jinking, in the tackle, or when landing from the lineout or any other jump. The symptoms are acute pain, and inability to run or continue to play. The site of damage swells, which can sometimes be, controlled a little by a high cut boot. When the injury is very minor and the ligaments are pulled but not damaged it may be possible to 'run it off'. If there is a great deal of pain and walking impossible, it maybe the fibula is cracked or broken.

Playing on muddy pitch can fatigue the player and put undue strain on the hamstring muscles. This may lead to strain caused by accelerated movement. Like all the football codes knee injuries to players frequently include anterior cruciate ligament tears, meniscal tears, medial collateral, ligament sprains, patellar dislocations, posterior cruciate ligament tears. Most of the medial collateral ligament sprains occur in rugby forwards and 60-70% of anterior cruciate ligament tears occurred in rugby backs. All other injuries occurred with equal frequency in backs and forwards. report by-/



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